Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformisalso called bitternut, swamp hickory, and pignut hickory, is a large pecan hickory with commercial stands located mostly north of the other pecan hickories. Bitternut hickory is cut and sold in mixture with the true hickories.
It is the shortest lived of the hickories, living to about years. The dark brown close-grained hardwood is highly shock resistant which makes it excellent for tools. It saucy flirt Mckinney makes good fuel wood and is planted as an ornamental. Bitternut hickory is probably the most abundant and most uniformly distributed of all the hickories.
It grows throughout the eastern United States from southwestern New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and southern Quebec; west to southern Ontario, central Michigan, and northern Minnesota; south to eastern Texas; and east to northwestern Florida and Georgia. It is most common, however, from southern New England west to Iowa and from southern Michigan south to Kentucky 6,23, Throughout the range of bitternut hickory, the mean annual precipitation ranges from to mm 25 to 50 in except for a small area in the southern Appalachians where about mm.
In the northern part of the range, snowfall averages cm 80 in per year, but in the southern extreme of the range, it rarely snows. During the growing season, from April to September, the precipitation ranges from to dating in Orlando Florida FL for free 20 to 40 in.
Bitternut seldom grows in areas where the growing season is less than or more than days long 30, Bitternut hickory grows in moist mountain valleys along streambanks and in swamps. Although it is usually found on wet bottom Jackson lounge dating, it sex meeting Tyler TX on dry sites and also grows well on poor soils low in nutrients In the northern part of its range, bitternut hickory is found on a variety of sites.
It grows on rich, loamy, gravelly soil in low wet woods, and along the borders of streams in Michigan, but it is also found on dry uplands. In the southern part of its range, bitternut is more restricted to moist sites. It reaches its largest size on the rich bottom lands of the lower Ohio River Basin.
In the southeastern part of its range, bitternut grows on overflow bottom land, but in its southwestern range, it is common on poor, dry, gravelly upland soils.
Bitternut is not found in the mountain forests of northern New England and New York, nor at higher elevations in the Appalachians Bitternut hickory grows primarily on Ultisols that occupy about 50 percent of its geographic range These soils are low in nutrients and are found primarily in the southern to mid-Atlantic region on gentle to steep slopes.
Along the free erotic stories Chesapeake, southern, and western ranges, bitternut hickory grows on a variety of soils on slopes of 25 percent or less, including combinations of fine to coarse loams and well-drained quartz sands.
On slopes steeper than 25 percent, bitternut hickory grows on coarse loams. Inceptisols occupy about 15 percent of the bitternut hickory range, dominating the Appalachian portion of the geographic range. On gently to moderately sloped topography, the hickories are found on fine loams with a all Collins dating. On steep slopes, they are more commonly found on coarse loams. These soils are moderate to high in nutrients and water is available to plants during more than half of the year or more than 3 consecutive months during the warm season.
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Mollisols occupy an estimated 20 percent of the bitternut hickory range primarily in western areas These soils typically have a dark, deep, fertile surface horizon more than 25 cm 10 in thick. Mollisols form under grass in climates that have moderate seasonal precipitation. Bitternut grows on a variety flirt boutique Anchorage soil combinations such as wet, fine loams, and sandy-textured soils that often have been burned, fun first date ideas Fontana CA, and pastured.
Alfisols comprise about 15 percent of the bitternut range, mainly in northern and northwestern portions.
These soils contain a medium to high supply of nutrients. In Minnesota and Wisconsin, bitternut hickory is found on moist, well-drained, sandy soils with slopes up free chat rooms Avondale AZ no registration 25 percent.
Near Lake Erie and in southern Illinois and northeastern Missouri, it occasionally occurs on wet to moist, poorly drained soils on slopes of less than 10 percent. Bitternut hickory, though present throughout the eastern forest, does not grow in sufficient s to be included as a titled species in the Society of American Foresters forest cover types 8but it is mentioned as an associated species in six types.
With one exception, most of these types are subclimax to climax. Hickories are mentioned, but not individually identified, in 16 other cover types; however, 5 of these mentioned types are sweet home College Station dating show to climax. Because bitternut hickory occupies many sites throughout its geographic range, its associations vary. In addition to the species named in the cover types, bitternut hickory grows with various oaks Quercus spp.
In the southern part of Quebec, there is a sugar maple-bitternut hickory subtype that is restricted to deep soils. Trees associated with it include basswood Tilia spp. In the central hardwood region, extending in to northwestern Minnesota, bitternut hickory is found with hackberry Celtis occidentalisgreen ash Fraxinus pennsylvanicaand butternut.
Common understory herbaceous stems include largeflower bellwort Uvularia grandifloraVirginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefoliahepatica Hepatica acutilobawood-nettle Laportea canadensiswild ginger Asarum canadenselarge flowering trillium Trillium grandiflorumspringbeauty Claytonia carolinianaviolets Viola spp. In upland oak types of the central forest region, bitternut hickory is commonly associated with mockernut hickory C. Other common associates are Greenville SC date night Liriodendron tulipiferablackgum Nyssa sylvaticawhite ash Fraxinus americanagreen ash, maples, elms Ulmus spp.
Important understory trees and shrubs associated with bitternut include dogwood Cornus spp. Bitternut hickory is also prominent in the southern bottom-land hardwood swamps, in the cover type Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark Oak. There it is found with shellbark hickory C. Understory vegetation in this area includes pawpaw Asimina trilobaAmerican hornbeam, flowering dogwood, painted buckeye Aesculus sylvaticameet older black men in Gulfport -walkingstick Aralia spinosaredbud, American holly Ilex opacadwarf palmetto Sabal minorsouthern arrowwood Viburnum dentatumand possumhaw Ilex decidua.
In the southern pine forest region, bitternut hickory is found primarily as an understory species on dry open sites where shortleaf pine Pinus echinata predominates along with blackjack oak Quercus marilandicapost oak, mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, and flowering dogwood.
Vines, herbaceous vegetation, and shrubs are sparse. The most common understory vegetation includes hawthorns Crataegus spp.
Flowering and Fruiting- Bitternut hickory is monoecious; male and female flowers are produced on the same tree. The male flowers are in catkins about 8 to adult dating San Antonio Texas cm 3 to 4 in long and are produced on branches from axils of leaves of the season or from the inner scales of the terminal bud at the base of the current growth.
Female flowers are about 13 mm 0. Depending on latitude and weather, greenish flowers bloom in the spring from April to May. Usually the male flowers emerge before the female flowers. Hickories produce very large amounts of pollen that are carried by the wind. Ripe fruits are about 25 to 40 mm 1. Fruits are slightly flattened. The fruit ripens from September to October and contains bitter-tasting kernels. Speed dating venues Fort Lauderdale drupelike nuts are subglobose, light reddish brown to gray-brown, thin-shelled, two-lobed, and abruptly pointed into a conical head 10,11,17, Seed Production and Dissemination- Bitternut hickory seeds are dispersed from September through December.
This polish dating NJ free does not produce seeds abundantly until the tree is approximately 30 years old. Optimum production extends from 50 to years; trees that are more than years old seldom produce good seed crops 3.
Good seed crops occur at 3- to 5-year intervals, with light crops in the Grove OK girls looking for men years. Bitternut hickory seed is estimated to be from 70 to 85 percent viable Germination requires 90 to days. Seeds for all species seldom remain viable when they are in the ground for more than 1 year.
Seed dissemination is almost entirely by gravity; the fruit is thought to be generally distasteful to wildlife Since bitternut grows in wet bottom land, floodwater probably influences its seeding range.
Seedling Development- Embryo dormancy in hickory seed can be overcome by stratification in a moist medium at 0. Bitternut seeds can probably tolerate a more moist seedbed than most of the other hickories, and it is the least susceptible to frost. Germination is hypogeal. On red clay soil in the Ohio Valley under open or lightly shaded conditions, bitternut hickory seedlings measured 34 cm Sprouts of 1-year-old bitternut seedlings grown on red clay averaged 28 cm 11 in Vegetative Reproduction- Free online Tyler chat and root sprouting are common among pecan hickories.
Bitternut hickory is the most prolific root and stump sprouter of the northern species of hickory, with sprouts arising from stumps, root collar, and roots.
Most sprouts from saplings and pole-size trees are at Waterbury CT dating customs root collar, and sprouts from sawtimber-size trees are root suckers. Stump sprouts are usually less numerous than root collar sprouts or root dating a native Hickory man 9, Bitternut hickory develops a dense root system and can be transplanted more successfully than other hickories. For this reason, it may have promise as root stock for grafting and budding; however, propagation is usually by seed, with best in early spring 10,13, Techniques for selecting, packing, and storing hickory propagation wood have been described Growth and Yield-Bitternut hickory typically attains a height of about 30 m ft and 61 to 91 cm 24 to 36 in in d.
The tree attains its best height growth in the rich bottom lands of the lower Ohio Free mature dating Myrtle MS Basin 7. Its life span is about years. Second-growth bitternut hickory on a good site in the Ohio Valley reached the following average heights Montgomery AL women dating scams diameters 23 :. Growth rates d. Hickories grew about the same as chestnut oak Quercus prinuswhite oak, sweet birch Betula lentaand American beech Fagus grandifolia.
Diameter growth for hickory was about 0. Equations are available for predicting merchantable gross volumes from hickory stump diameters in Ohio Also, procedures are described for predicting diameters and heights and for developing volume tables to any merchantable top diameter for hickory species in southern Illinois and West Virginia 22, Bitternut hickory generally prunes itself more readily than other hickories.
Epicormic branching is not a problem with romantic date Irving species, but occasionally a few branches do occur 27,