Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Among Latinos, cultural values such as machismo and marianismo may promote inconsistent condom use representing a ificant risk factor for HIV infection. The purpose of this study was free Rhode Island dating completely free dating explore further Latino traditional culturally-ascribed attitudes and behaviour for emerging themes toward condom use among a diverse group of adult Latino men and women living in Miami-Dade County, Florida USA.
The study used a qualitative study-de and collected data from sixteen focus groups with a total of 67 Latino men and women. Finding from the focus groups described attitudes and behaviours that counter traditional gender roles towards sex and expected sexual behaviours informed by machismo and old slapper dating San Juan PR. As the findings of this study suggest, the process differ greatly between Latino men and women, having an impact on the risk behaviours in which each engage.
The impact of the HIV epidemic has been particularly felt in urban communities with a high concentration of Latinos. Although the rate of new HIV cases has remained stable across the nation Centers for Disease Controlincidence rates have been increasing in Miami-Dade.
Inthe county experienced a As the extent of the HIV free dating Rapids review continues to evolve in Latino populations, research has shed light in understanding the importance of socio-cultural factors influencing online dating Tucson AZ free HIV risk behaviours of Latinos in the USA.
Among Latinos, cultural values such as machismo and marianismo have been suggested as likely to promote unprotected sex and inconsistent condom use, representing a ificant risk factor for HIV infection and the spread of HIV. The purpose of this study is to explore further Latino traditional culturally-ascribed gender roles for emerging themes toward condom use influencing risk behaviours and attitudes among a diverse group of adult Latino men and women living in Miami-Dade County. Understanding risk factors and behaviours associated with HIV among Latinos is increasingly important as the size and diversity of the Latino populations continues to grow in large metropolitan areas in the USA.
The arrival of new Latino groups in cities such as Miami, with long-standing Latinos populations is, in a way, reshaping the cultural dark dating Amarillo TX and social fabric of these metropolitan areas Portes and Stepick, ; Stepick By examining emerging perspectives on condom use among Latinos in Miami-Dade, this papers aims to contribute to the scarce literature on risk behaviours in urban areas with a high concentration of diverse Latino populations.
Despite being aware of the benefit of condom use to prevent HIV and other sexually Brownsville TX dating services free diseases STDsLatino men and women report widespread unprotected sex Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal Research notes that condom use is associated dating with Appleton man the stability and nature of relationships; married Latino men and women report less condom use or when in a regular relationship Pulerwitz et al.
Both men and women report greater condom use with non-primarily sexual partners, perceiving fewer barriers to negotiate condom use as compared to primary relationships.
The issue of trust is important factor for condom use. Woman seeking man in Myrtle MS for friendship, women may desist in their intent of condom negotiation due to the fear of being suspected of infidelity San Doval et al.
Social and personal factors are important considerations in condom use as well. Aversion to condom use by Latino men has been cited as a ificant barrier to consistent condom use Hernandez et al. Gender inequality Hernandez et al. Condom had also been found to vary with the level of acculturation among Latinos. Recent immigrant and less acculturated Latino men are more likely not to use condoms while engaging in high-risk sexual behaviours e.
Although recent immigrant and less acculturated Latino women report fewer sexual partners, they also are less likely to have condoms available Sabogal et al. Despite the heterogeneity of Latinos in the US, research on condom use patterns in relation to differences in country of origin, region, or ancestry remains limited. In Latino culture, machismo and marianismo are important cultural and social constructs influencing sexual risk behaviours and condom use Ortiz-Torres dating in San Juan PR with number al.
As a risk factor for HIV, machismo may encourage Latino men to prove their manhood by having multiple sexual partners Levy et al. For Woman looking for man in Salinas men, penetrative sex and procreation are strongly associated with virility and offer a reflection of manhood Cianelli et al. Female chastity and asexuality are seen as important virtues of good women Strait On the contrary, women who are sexually experienced and knowledgeable are seen as bad women and undesirable as spouses Villegas et al.
Under the influence of marianismothe submission of women is a ificant value taught to young girls, influencing their perceptions of sexuality and expected sexual behaviours. Making sexual advances as well as initiating sex or conversation about sex remains largely a male prerogative Galanti ; Bogart, Cecil, and Pinkerton Correspondingly, female desires and sexual pleasure is relegated to male desires and feelings Cianelli et al.
In this sense, traditionally, marianismo complements the cultural expectations of machismo dictating sexual attitudes and behaviours, making it difficult for Latino women to negotiate safe sexual practices even when known to be at risk for HIV or other sexually transmitted infections STIs Cianelli et al.
Acculturation in the form of changes in the attitudes, values and behaviours of a group associated to the process of socialisation San Antonio Texas TX pattys date from contact with a new culture Phinney and Floresinfluences traditional sex role attitudes and expectations.
Research has found that foreign-born Latino women that have spent more time dating Flint MI friends the USA, or Latino women born in the USA, tend to embrace wider, less-restrictive attitudes towards sexuality that challenge those informed by marianismo. Research has also found that second-generation Latino women are less traditional than their first-generation counterparts Soto and Shaver On the other hand, even though recent Latino male immigrants may hold prominent views of male authority and dominance in sexual relationships, the influence of machismo has not been found to decline with time in the USA, or across generations, to the levels found among Date in the Idaho women Phinney and Flores Thus, it might be expected that acculturation will have more of an impact on risk behaviours, including condom use patterns, among Latino women than Latino men.
Dating in the Kalamazoo MI findings presented in this paper derive from a larger study investigating risk behaviour among a group of Latino men and women participating in court-mandated community rehabilitation programmes. A total of 16 focus groups were conducted with a total of 67 Latino participants 39 men, 28 women.
Forty-seven participants were recruited from a community agency that offers court-mandated rehabilitation classes and probation services at multiple locations in Miami-Dade County.
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The remaining 20 participants were recruited from other community agencies or by word of mouth. Despite the limitations of our recruitment approach, it was possible to capture some variation in the sample in terms of gender and place of birth in addition to other length of time in the USA Table 1. Participants were then ased to a focus group according to gender and preferred language see Table 2. Flyers were also posted explaining the study. Several individuals receiving information during the recruitment efforts provided contact information requesting more information about the study.
The project director Newark NJ u dating hunt each potential participant, described the study in detail, and, if the participant was interested, conducted a brief screening over the phone to determine eligibility. Once participants were determined as eligible to participate in the study, they were ased to a focus group.
The of focus group participants per group ranged from 2 to 7 participants and averaged 4 per group. The group sessions lasted between 60—90 minutes. Each group was audio-recorded.
There was one moderator and a research assistant taking notes. Participants provided consent romantic date ideas Seattle the elite dating Vermont began and some ground rules were provided such as the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of the group members. Each participant was given a and was subsequently identified by that during the group discussion. No names were used date ideas Beavercreek the group discussion.
The focus group guide consisted of several topic areas and questions including knowledge about HIV, list of Chesapeake dating shows and attitudes toward risk reduction, barriers to risk reduction, HIV-related behavioural skill deficits and strengths, and real life decision-making scenarios. To maintain the integrity of the data, focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim. Maintaining the original language of the focus groups in an accurate transcription is critical for the analysis of qualitative data Oliver, Serovich, and Mason Coding of the transcripts was also completed in the original language of the interview.
Segments of text from the focus groups were translated into English once they had been selected to be included in this paper by a native-speaking, bilingual research assistant. All transcriptions were reviewed for accuracy by the lead author. Data management, coding, and analysis were done using Atlas. Data were coded following a concurrent two-step metacoding approach Ryan and Bernard The included: Latino culture, machismo, marianismo, and HIV risk behaviour.
Second, the text was coded following a grounded theory approach, allowingthemes, and patterns to emerge Strauss and Corbin Notes on patterns and themes observed during the coding were documented with memos using Atlas. Memos were linked to the text as part of the analysis and coding of the data.
In this paper, we focus on emerging themes on culturally-ascribed condom use attitudes and behaviours among a diverse group of Latino men and women in Miami-Dade. are interpreted from the perspective that men and women participate Laredo TX free chat line numbers the process of constructing notions of gender, power, and sexuality; that is, by exercising agency and redefining culturally ascribed gender roles and expectations in date in Bremerton romantic interacting with structural and sociocultural influences Browner Among the multiplicity of factors influencing this process, acculturation is particularly relevant given the diverse background of the Latino population of the study.
Although understanding acculturation involves an examination of complex processes and factors Kulis et al ; Acevedowhich is beyond the scope of this paper, critically, the concept provides a lens through which to interpret emergent themes on sexual risk behaviour participants express as they seek to reconcile traditional Pueblo flirting lines norms and sexuality with their everyday life experiences in a new local fling Moreno Valley diverse socio-cultural environment.
There was a general agreement among the Latino men participating in the study that condom use was disliked. Preference was given to having unprotected sex cited as being natural and more pleasurable even when men were aware of the risk for HIV infection and other STDs.
Men in the study also identified the social environment as a factor influencing the classification of women. According to many respondents meeting location informs their classification of women and their perceptions of risk. It depends on where you met her, depends on how you meet. Because if you met at a dating professional Henderson NV women, at a bar, at a party.
You always know that when the party ends, you go from there to the bed. For example, having sexual relations with a woman believed to have multiple sexual partners dictated condom use. So I just strap up.
The differentiation men reported between dirty and clean women was reinforced further when men described safe sexual partners. When I got out of prison, the first thing I did was I see girls out on street and I bought a handful of condoms Muskegon girl looking for good man I put them in my wallet.
I am more at ease, more comfortable, with a woman when I know I have to insist with her to have sex. Married women, for example; she is married and you have been insisting for one, two months. Some men stressed the importance of sexual experience in the classification, equating youth with inexperience despite contradicting evidence.